Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis.
One such extremely potent oil is pomegranate seed oil or Punica granatum seed oil. Pomegranate skin benefits are many, lets understand more about the fruit and its extracts.
The pomegranate originates in the Middle East, with findings such as fossilized leaves, branches and seeds dating back to the early Bronze Age (3500–2000 BC). Scientists have placed it in the first five positions in the list of the oldest cultivated fruits, along with the olive, grape, date palm and fig, while references of pomegranate exist in the Koran and the Bible. In many religions and cultures, pomegranate is thought to be an auspicious symbol, mostly of life, luck, abundance and fertility. The process of the domestication of pomegranate took place during the prehistoric times, when traders, sailors and missionaries are said to have been responsible for the introduction of pomegranate to the Mediterranean region, Mexico and California. Its spread through Eurasia and America demonstrates the versatility of the plant as far as climatic and soil conditions are concerned, and this is actually the reason for the fruit’s current morphological conditions.
Pomegranate is now particularly cultivated in west Asia, though it is also cultivated in the Mediterranean region and other parts of the world too. Since ancient years, its consumption has been associated with numerous health benefits. In recent years, several in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed pomegranate juice benefits for skin and its beneficial physiological activities, especially its antioxidative, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. Furthermore, human-based studies have shown promising results and have indicated pomegranate potential as a protective agent of several diseases. Following that trend, benefits of pomegranate juice for skin and body and the industry’s demand for antioxidants and antimicrobials from natural sources, the application of pomegranate and its extracts (mainly as antioxidants and antimicrobials), has been studied extensively for health benefiting chemical and biochemical constituent compounds both for consumption and topical application.
So Is pomegranate good for skin?
If it's good for your body, it's good for your skin. This applies pretty much to most plants, fruits, vegetables and leaves. Basically, if you can eat it, you can apply it. Let’s explore pomegranate juice benefits, pomegranate peel benefits and pomegranate seed oil benefits separately.
Pomegranate juice benefits
Pomegranate juice is a good source of fructose, sucrose, and glucose. It also has some of the simple organic acids such as ascorbic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, and malic acid. In addition, it contains small amounts of all amino acids, specifically proline, methionine, and valine. Both the juice and peel are rich in polyphenols. The largest classes include tannins and flavonoids that indicate pharmacological potential of pomegranate due to their strange antioxidative and preservative activities.
The uses of pomegranate skin are many as the bioactive compounds , polyphenols exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antihypertensive properties.
The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrolysable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins.
Pomegranate Peel benefits
Pomegranate Peel Extract (PGE) or the pomegranate skin has been proposed as a natural antifungal substance. Polyphenol-rich extract of pomegranate peel alleviates tissue inflammation and hypercholesterolaemia.
Pomegranate phenolics are used as natural antioxidants for cosmeceutical applications for skin health, as a recent in vitro study showed their protective effects against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Note, pomegranate products (juice, extract and oil) that are derived from the remaining material after pomegranate fruit squeezing for juice production have presented photo-chemopreventive effects. More specifically, pomegranate products have been shown to inhibit UVB-mediated DNA and protein damage, increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen and tropoelastin levels along with the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins in human reconstituted skin.
Pomegranate Seed oil benefits
Pomegranate seed oil (PSO) is primarily composed of unsaturated fatty acids, implying its potential application as a topical medication for skin repair, particularly against skin ageing.
About 18% of dried and cleaned white seeds are oil. The oil is rich in punicic acid (65%), which is a triple conjugated 18-carbon fatty acid. There are some phytoestrogen compounds in pomegranate seeds that have sex steroid hormones similar to those in humankind. The 17-alpha-estradiol is a mirror-image version of estrogen.
Pomegranate seed oil is a good source of essential FFAs, phenolic compounds, phytosterols, and lipid-soluble fractions. Pomegranate seed oil contains 63% UFA, including linoleic acid (29%) and oleic acid (10%) . It is well known for its high concentration of polyphenolic compounds and for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. An oil-in-water cream containing pomegranate seed oil and C. lechleri resin extract can be helpful in the prevention or improvement of skin changes associated with striae. Pomegranate seed oil has been used in nanoemulsions to facilitate the delivery of pomegranate peel polyphenols. Nanoemulsions with pomegranate seed oil has been shown to improve both photostability and in vivo anti-nociceptive effect of ketoprofen.
Pomegranate seed oil helps restore, renew and revitalise skin. Packed with natural antioxidants, pomegranate seed oil offers major anti-aging benefits. It stimulates keratinocyte production and promotes the regeneration of skin's epidermis. It boosts collagen production, enhances skin elasticity, reduces the appearance of scarring and promotes the reversal of skin damage.
Pomegranate Seed Oil is an elixir of nature just like the fruit the seed oil is also excellent for the skin and hair. It promotes keratinocytes production, major cells found in the outer layer of the skin. The unique polyunsaturated oil, punicic acid, an omega 5 fatty acid, has strong anti-inflammatory properties. The oil fends off free radicals to keep skin aging at bay and provides protection against sun damage. Perfect for all skin types including oily and acne-prone skin, pomegranate seed oil, unlike most carrier oils penetrates deeply into the skin, keeping skin hydrated and sealing in all the moisture for the longest time. The oils absorb deeply into the skin without leaving any greasy residue behind. Just like the pomegranate fruit its oil is perfect for its antioxidant properties. It helps with collagen production, firming the skin and stimulating blood circulation on the scalp, this in return strengthens the blood vessels which results in faster hair growth and reduced hair fall.
Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, particularly its UVB (290–320 nm) component, is the primary cause of many adverse biological effects including photoageing and skin cancer. UVB radiation causes DNA damage, protein oxidation and induces matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Photo-chemoprevention via the use of botanical antioxidants in affording protection to human skin against UVB damage is receiving increasing attention. Pomegranate contains anthocyanins and hydrolysable tannins and possesses strong antioxidant and anti‐tumor‐promoting properties.
Pomegranate seed oil is particularly effective against damage from free radicals and makes a excellent component of sunscreens and products fighting sun damage, including fine lines and spots.
All in all, Pomegranate and its various parts- the peel, the juice and the seed can treat five signs of skin aging – loss of moisture, vibrant energy, glow, firmness and wrinkles – to keep the skin healthy and vibrant.
- Pagliarulo, C.; De Vito, V.; Picariello, G.; Colicchio, R.; Pastore, G.; Salvatore, P.; Volpe, M.G. Inhibitory effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) polyphenol extracts on the bacterial growth and survival of clinical isolates of pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Food Chem. 2016, 190, 824–831. [CrossRef][PubMed]
- Rana, T.S.; Narzary, D.; Ranade, S.A. Systematics and taxonomic disposition of the genus Punica L.Pomegranate. Fruit Veg. Cereal Sci. Biotechnol. 2010, 4, 19–25.Foods 2020, 9, 122 15 of 21
- Sreekumar, S.; Sithul, H.; Muraleedharan, P.; Azeez, J.M.; Sreeharshan, S. Pomegranate fruit as a rich source of biologically active compounds. Biomed. Res. Int. 2014, 2014. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Aslanova, M.S.; Magerramov, M.A. Physicochemical parameters and amino acid composition of new pomological sorts of pomegranate fruits. Chem. Plant Raw Mater. 2012, 1, 165–169.
- da Silva, J.A.T.; Rana, T.S.; Narzary, D.; Verma, N.; Meshram, D.T.; Ranade, S.A. Pomegranate biology and biotechnology: A review. Sci. Hortic. 2013, 160, 85–107. [CrossRef]
- Gunjan, J.; Rahul, N.; Divya, S.; Praveen, K.S.; Diwaker, K.A. Antioxidant activity of various parts of Punica granatum: A review. J. Drug Deliv. Ther. 2012, 2, 138–141. [CrossRef]
- Pareek, S.; Valero, D.; Serrano, M. Postharvest biology and technology of pomegranate. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2015, 95, 2360–2379. [CrossRef]
- Feng, Y.Z.; Chen, D.J.; Song, M.T.; Zhao, Y.L.; Li, Z.H. Assessment and utilization of pomegranate varieties resources. J. Fruit Sci. 1998, 15, 370–373.
Saeed, W.T. Pomegranate cultivars as a
ected by Paclobutrazol, salt stress and change in fingerprints. Bull. Fac. Agric. Cairo Univ. 2005, 56, 581–615.
- Jalikop, S.H. Breeding of pomegranate and annonaceous fruits. Acta Hortic. 2011, 890, 191–197. [CrossRef]
- Lantzouraki, D.Z.; Sinanoglou, V.J.; Zoumpoulakis, P.G.; Glamocˇlija, J.; C´ iric´, A.; Sokovic´,M.; Heropoulos, G.;Proestos, C. Antiradical–antimicrobial activity and phenolic profile of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juices from dierent cultivars: A comparative study. RSC Adv. 2015, 5, 2602–2614. [CrossRef]
- Vasantha Kumar, G.K. Pomegranate cultivation in Karnataka state, India—A profitable venture. Acta Hortic. 2009, 818, 55–60. [CrossRef]
- Pande, G.; Akoh, C.C. Pomegranate cultivars (Punica granatum L.). In Nutritional Composition of Fruit Cultivars, 1st ed.; Simmonds, M.S.J., Preedy, V.R., Eds.; Academic Press: New York, NY, USA, 2016; pp. 667–689.
- Varasteh, F.; Arzani, K.; Zamani, Z.; Mosheni. A. Evaluation of the most important fruit characteristics of some commercial pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars of Iran. Acta Hortic. 2009, 818, 103–108.[CrossRef]
- Holland, D.; Hatib, K.; Bar-Ya’akov, I. Pomegranate: Botany, horticulture, breeding. Hortic. Rev. 2009, 35, 2.
- Barone, E.; Caruso, T.; Marra, F.P.; Sottile, F. Preliminary observations on some Sicilian pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) varieties. In Production, Processing and Marketing of Pomegranate in the Mediterranean Region: Advances in Research and Technology, Proceedings of the Options Méditerranéennes: Série, A. Séminaires Méditerranéens, Orihuela, Spain, 15–17 October 1998; Melgarejo, P., Martínez-Nicolás, J.J., Martínez-Tomé, J.,Eds.; CIHEAM: Zaragoza, Spain, 2000; Volume 42, pp. 137–141.
- Ferrara, G.; Giancaspro, A.; Mazzeo, A.; Giove, S.L.; Matarrese, A.M.S.; Pacucci, C.; Punzi, R.; Trani, A.; Gambacorta, G.; Blanco, A.; et al. Characterization of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) genotypes collected in Puglia region, Southeastern Italy. Sci. Hortic. 2014, 178, 70–78. [CrossRef]
- LaRue, J.H. Growing Pomegranates in California. University of California, Leaflet 2459. 1980. Available online: http://ucanr.edu/sites/Pomegranates/files/122804.pdf (accessed on 30 December 2019).
- Hmid, I.; Elothmani, D.; Hanine, H.; Oukabli, A.; Mehinagic, E. Comparative study of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant attributes of eighteen pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars grown in Morocco. Arab. J. Chem. 2017, 10, S2675–S2684. [CrossRef]
- Melgarejo, P.; Salazar, D.M.; Artes, F. Organic acids and sugars composition of harvested pomegranate fruits. Eur. Food Res. Tech. 2000, 211, 185–190. [CrossRef]
- Mars, M.; Marrakchi, M. Diversity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) germplasm in Tunisia. Genet. Resour Crop Evol. 1999, 46, 461–476. [CrossRef]
- Stover, E.W.; Mercure, E.W. The pomegranate: A new look at the fruit of paradise. HortScience 2007, 42, 1088–1092. [CrossRef]
- Nuncio-Jáuregui, N.; Calín-Sánchez, Á.; Vázquez-Araújo, L.; Pérez-López, A.J.; Frutos-Fernández, M.J.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á.A. Processing pomegranates for juice and impact on bioactive components. In Processing and Impact on Active Components in Food; Preedy, V., Ed.; Academic Press: New York, NY, USA, 2015; pp. 629–636. [CrossRef]
- Viuda-Martos, M.; Fernández-López, J.; Pérez-Álvarez, J.A. Pomegranate and its many functional components as related to human health: A review. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 2010, 9, 635–654. [CrossRef]
- Turrini, E.; Ferruzzi, L.; Fimognari, C. Potential effects of pomegranate polyphenols in cancer prevention and therapy. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2015, 2015, 1–19. [CrossRef]
Happy Skin Y’all!